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Why the letters on the keyboard are not in alphabetical order?

Arrangement of letters on a computer keyboard – a legacy of typewriters, which appeared in the XIX century.
Smith Premier Typewriter (born Smith Premier), made at the end of XIX century. Electric typewriter IBM Selectric, 1961
The principle of operation of this machine is simple. When you hit your finger on the letter key actuated lever (hammer) with a cast matrix of letters on top. He hits the tape, soaked in ink and located between the paper and hammer, and leaves, so mark on the paper. Typing hammers alternately strike the drum to the paper.
In the first typewriters, invented by Christopher Scholes, the letters on the keys are in alphabetical order, in two rows. In addition, you can print only capital letters, and numbers 1 and 0 does not. They successfully replaced the letter “I” and “O”. At first it all arranged. However, over time, the print speed is increasing, and then these machines revealed a serious problem: some hammers were unable to return to his seat and constantly engaged with each other. Very often try to separate them resulted in damage to cars.

And it happened because in the English alphabet are many adjacent letters, which are used more often than others (eg, pr, no). This often turned out that adjacent keys pressed one after the other, resulting in a cohesive and jamming hammers.

Manufacturers of typewriters have learned and developed a keyboard, which is frequently used in the text letters were placed away from the index finger (since before the invention of the “blind” method prints desyatipaltsevym mainly index fingers). So there was the famous keyboard layout QWERTY (on first character of the top row, left), which is still used today. She migrated to the computer keyboard, though there were problems clutch levers (hammer) does not exist.
QWERTY keyboard
It must be admitted that the location of the letters on the QWERTY keyboard is not the most efficient. Much more convenient layout, invented by Professor of Statistics, University of Washington, Arthur Dvorak. It frequently used letters are in the middle and upper ranks. A left hand in the middle row are all vowels, and under the right arm – the most common consonants.

The load on the hand with a more balanced. Judge for yourself: an 8-hour working day, our fingers are doing a Dvorak keyboard road about 2 km, while the traditional QWERTY keyboard, the same figure is for 7 kilometers. Accordingly, the speed of typing on the keyboard Dvorak 2-fold higher compared with a keyboard QWERTY.
Dvorak Keyboard
How do things stand with the Russian keyboard? Why her letters are in that order, and not otherwise? The fact that Russia typewriters, like all gadgets, appeared much later than in the West. At this point, many design flaws have already been eliminated. And Russian keyboard was originally designed as an ergonomic, that is, with a convenient and rational layout. Under the very strong and fast index fingers were placed most frequently used letters, but under the weak ring finger and little finger – more rare.

Unfortunately and Russian computer keyboard has its drawbacks. For example, for a comma, which is used, you see, very often, do not even bother to provide a separate key, and placed it on the same key, which is the point – in upper case! Therefore, in order to print a comma, press two keys. Maybe that’s why high school students who love to sit on the internet, so often missing commas? ..

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